Resolution and Numerical Aperture

Introduction An often-asked question in imaging is whether two objects are in the same or separate places. Resolution, the ability to tell two nearby features...

Intro To Electrophysiology

Introduction Electrophysiology is the study of electrical properties of biological cells and tissues, and can be broadly split into neural (nerves throughout the body, especially...

Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) Microscopy

Introduction Fluorescence microscopy is a fundamental set of techniques in the life sciences for visualizing structures in living systems. Typically, a fluorescent molecule, either synthetic...

Signal to Noise Ratio

Signal-to-Noise Ratio Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) describes the quality of a measurement. In CCD imaging, SNR refers to the relative magnitude of the signal compared to...

Full-Frame CCDs

Full-Frame CCDs Among charge-coupled devices, full-frame CCDs have the simplest architecture. The classical full-frame CCD design employs a single parallel register for photon exposure, charge...

Maximizing Microscope Field of View With Scientific Cameras

Introduction Microscope field of view (FOV) is the maximum area visible when looking through the microscope eyepiece (eyepiece FOV) or scientific camera (camera FOV), usually...

Introduction To Light Sheet Microscopy

Introduction During the last two decades, microscopy has been constantly trying to exploit new boundaries. By aiming for smaller details, cameras and other detectors needed...

Electron-Multiplying (EM) Gain

Electron-Multiplying (EM) Gain Formerly referred to as “on-chip multiplication gain”, this technology enables multiplication of charge (i.e., electrons) collected in each pixel of the CCD’s...

Camera Sensitivity

Introduction The sensitivity of a camera is one of the most important aspects of camera performance – with inadequate sensitivity, your experiment may simply be...

Köhler Illumination

Introduction In microscopy, we aim to produce a sharply-defined, magnified image of our sample in our detector or our eyes. The sample requires illumination for...